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Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women

Human Rights
at home, abroad and on the way...

GAATW Logo

Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women

Human Rights
at home, abroad and on the way...

Events and News

Trafficking, Labour Exploitation, and Related Frameworks

GAATW & STV/Wijers, M. & Lap-Chew, L. (1999a???): Trafficking in Women Forced Labour and Slavery-like Practices in Marriage, Domestic Labour and Prostitution. Utrecht/Bangkok: STV/GAATW

GAATW (2000): Human Rights and Trafficking in Persons: A Handbook. Bangkok: GAATW.

GAATW (2006). Access to Justice for Trafficked Persons. Report of the Global Consultation. Bangkok, Thailand 7-9 June 2006. Bangkok: GAATW

GAATW (2007): Collateral Damage: the Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights around the World. Bangkok: GAATW

GAATW (2008) Recognise the Right to Assistance. Brochure. Bangkok: GAATW.

GAATW (2009a): Alliance News Issue 30: Europe: An Overview of Recent Developments. Bangkok: GAATW

GAATW (2009b) Feminist Participatory Action Research (FPAR) FPAR Learning Workshop, 24-29 May 2009, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Bangkok: GAATW

GAATW (2009c) Roundtable 3 ‘Bringing together ‘Linkages’ topics’: in Feminist Participatory Action Research and GAATW Working Papers. Bangkok, 10-14 March 2010. Presentation AkiDwA: Am Only Saying It Now, Experiences of Women Seeking Asylum in Ireland. Bangkok: GAATW.

GAATW (2010a): Beyond Borders: Exploring Trafficking’s Links to Gender, Migration, Labour, Globalisation and Security. 2010 Working Papers Series. Bangkok: GAATW.

GAATW (2010b) BB: Exploring Links between Trafficking and Gender.

GAATW (2010c) BB: Exploring Links between Trafficking and Globalisation & Security.

GAATW (2010d) BB: Exploring Links between Trafficking and Labour.

GAATW (2010e) BB: Exploring Links between Trafficking and Migration.

GAATW (2010f) International Members Congress and Conference Report. Beyond Borders: Trafficking in the Context of Migrant, Labour and Women’s Rights. 4-7 July 2010, Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: GAATW.

GAATW (2010g). ‘A Woman’s Life is Richer than her Trafficking Experience’, Feminist Participatory Action Research (FPAR) series. Bangkok: GAATW.

GAATW (2011a) Beyond ‘Supply and Demand’ Catchphrases: Assessing the Uses and Limitations of Demand-Based Approaches in Anti-Trafficking. Bangkok: GAATW

GAATW (2011b) Smuggling and Trafficking: Rights and Linkages. Bangkok: GAATW

GAATW/OHCHR (2011) Smuggling Roundtable Meeting Report, 20-22 June 2011, Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: GAATW.

Gallagher, A. (2010): The right to an effective remedy for victims of trafficking in persons: A Survey of International Law and Policy. Paper submitted for the expert consultation convened by the UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, especially women and children, Ms. Joy Ngozi Ezeilo on: “The right to an effective remedy trafficked persons”. Bratislava, Slovakia 22 – 23 November, 2010

Heide-Uhl, B. (2011): Terminology Matters: What do we mean when we refer to ‘exploitation’? Rights Work Initiative. Web Site: http://rightswork.org

Human Rights Watch (2010): Rights on the Line: Human Rights Watch Work on Abuses against Migrants in 2010. New York: HRW

ICHRP (2010) Irregular Migration, Migrant Smuggling and Human Rights: Towards Coherence. Geneva: ICHRP

ILO (2004): Forced Labour: Definition, Indicators and Measurement. Geneva: ILO

ILO (2005b): A Global alliance against forced labour. Global report under the follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Report of the Director-General. Geneva: ILO

ILO/Belser, P. (2005): Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the profits. Geneva: ILO

ILO (2009b): The cost of coercion: Global Report under the follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Geneva: ILO

ILO/Anders, B. & Belser, P. (eds) (2009): Forced Labour; Coercion and Exploitation in the Private Economy.  Geneva: Lynne Rienner publishers.

ILO (no date available): 10 Principles for Business Leaders to combat Forced Labour and Trafficking. Geneva: ILO

International Commission of Jurists  (2010): Migration and International: Human Rights Law. Practitioners Guide No. 6. Geneva: ICJ

ITUC CSI IGB (2008): Mini-Action Guide on Forced Labour. Brussels: ITUC

ITUC CSI IGB (2009): How to Combat Forced Labour and Trafficking. Best practices manual for Trade Unions. Brussels: ITUC

ITUC CSI IGB (2011a). Final Resolution on Tackling Precarious and Informal Work. 2 - 4 February 2011. 8GC/E(FINAL). Brussels: ITUC General Council

ITUC CSI IGB (2011b): Living with economic insecurity: women in precarious work. Brussels.

Jamin, J. (2009). L’imaginaire du complot. IMISCOE Policy Brief No.17, November 2009. Online publication: IMISCOE

FAFO & NEXUS Institute/Brunovskis, A. & Surtees, R. (2007): Leaving the Past Behind? When victims of trafficking decline assistance. Oslo: FAFO

OSCE (2003): Decision No. 557: OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings. Vienna: OSCE

OSCE-ODIHR (2007c): Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons Conference: ‘Assistance to Victims of Trafficking: We Can Do Better’; Presentation by S. Scanlan: The identification of Trafficked persons in the face of conflicting agendas. Vienna : OSCE

PICUM/Flynn, D. (2007): Policy brief Human Trafficking and Forced Labour; What Perspectives to Challenge Exploitation? Brussels: PICUM

PICUM (2009): Undocumented and irregular migration: policy developments, data and social implications. Brussels: PICUM

Queen Mary University of London/Shields, K. (2010): Labour Exploitation: Crossing the threshold between acceptable and unacceptable labour conditions. London: Queen Mary University of London

Rights Work Initiative/American University Washington College of Law (2011): Issue Paper 2: Slavery, Forced Labour, Debt Bondage and Human Trafficking: From Conceptual Confusion to Targeted Solutions. Washington: American University Washington College of Law. http://rightswork.org

Scarlet Alliance (2011) Letter dated February 2011 to the Attorney Generals Department, regarding The Criminal Justice Response to Slavery and People Trafficking; Reparation; and Vulnerable Witness Protections. Darlinghurst: Scarlet Alliance.

Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children. (2009). Promotion and Protection of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development. (Submitted to the 10th HRC, Agenda item 3, No. A/HRC/10/16). Geneva: United Nations.

STV/GAATW/IHRL (1999) Human Rights Standards for the Treatment of Trafficked Persons. Bangkok: GAATW

Surtees, R. (2008). Trafficked Men as Unwilling Victims. St Anthony’s International Review (STAIR), The Politics of Human Trafficking. Volume 4, Number 1, April 2008.

UNESCO Bangkok (2004).  Factsheet #1: Worldwide Trafficking Estimates by Organizations. http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Trafficking/statdatabase/Copy_of_Graph_Worldwide__2_.pdf

UNHCHR (2010): Commentary: Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking. Geneva: UNHCHR

UNODC (2006): Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns. Vienna: UNODC

UNODC/UN.GIFT (2008a): The Vienna Forum to fight Human Trafficking; Workshop: The Roles of Employers’ Organizations, Businesses and Trade Unions in Combating Trafficking for Labour Exploitation. Vienna: UNODC

UNODC/UN.GIFT (2008b): The Vienna Forum to fight Human Trafficking; Workshop: Supply Management, Eliminating the risks of forced labour and trafficking. Vienna: UNODC

UNODC/UN.GIFT (2009a): Global Report on trafficking in  persons. Vienna: UNODC

UNODC (2011): Transnational Organised Crime in the Fishing Industry. Focus on: Trafficking in Persons, Smuggling of Migrants and Illicit drugs Trafficking. Vienna: UNODC

US Department of State (2011): 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report.

Utrecht University (2009): Human trafficking, turning our attention to labour exploitation. Workshop Report October 2009. Utrecht: Science Shop of Law, Economics and Governance.

European Legal Instruments and Case Law

Council of the European Union: Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (2002/629/JHA)

Council of the European Union: Council Framework Decision of 15 March 2001 on The Standing of Victims in Criminal Proceedings (2001/220/JHA)

Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings and its Explanatory Report (Warsaw, 16.V.2005) Council of Europe Treaty Series – No. 197.

Directive 2011/36/EU Of The Europe Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision (2002/629/JHA)

Directive 2009/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 providing for minimum standards on sanctions and measures against employers of illegally staying third-country nationals

Directive 2004/81/EC of 29 April 2004 on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration, who cooperate with the competent authorities.

European Court of Human Rights (2010): Rantsev v Cyprus and Russia ECHR 25965/04 (7 January 2010)

European Court of Human Rights (2005): Siliadin v France ECHR 73316/01 (26 July 2005)

UN General Assembly (1985) Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (A/RES/40/34)

UNODC (2000) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (the Protocol), supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000.

Information on Europe

Dottridge, M./Associazione On the Road (2011): E-notes:  Report on the implementation of anti-trafficking policies and interventions in the 27 EU Member States from a human rights perspective (2008 and 2009) Fermo: Associazione On the Road.

EU plan on best practices, standards and procedures for combating and preventing trafficking in human beings (2005/C 311/01)

European Commission Working Document: Evaluation and monitoring of the implementation of the EU Plan on best practices, standards and procedures for combating and preventing trafficking in human beings Brussels, 17.10.2008/ COM(2008) 657 final

EU Group of Experts on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission: Report (22 December 2004).

EU Group of Experts on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission Opinion No. 7/2010: Proposal for a European Strategy and Priority Actions on combating and preventing trafficking in human beings (THB) and protecting the rights of trafficked and exploited persons.

EUROPOL (European Law Enforcement Agency) (2009a): OCTA 2009: EU Organised Crime Threat Assessment. EUROPOL

EUROPOL (European Law Enforcement Agency) (2009b): Trafficking in Human Beings in the European Union: A EUROPOL Perspective. The Hague: EUROPOL

ILO/European Commission (2009): Operational indicators of THB; Results from a Delphi survey implemented by the ILO and the European Commission. Geneva: ILO

PICUM (2010): PICUM’s Main Concerns about the Fundamental Rights of Undocumented Migrants in Europe. Brussels: PICUM

UNODC/UN.GIFT (2009b): Trafficking in  persons: Analysis on Europe. Vienna: UNODC

Country Information

Belarus & Ukraine

IOM/Surtees, R. & Nexus Institute (2008): Trafficking of men – a trend less considered. The case of Belarus and Ukraine. Geneva: IOM

Cyprus
Re-Integration Center for Migrant Workers/CCME (2011): Trafficking for Labour in Cyprus. Athens: Re-Integration Center for Migrant Workers

Czech Republic
CCME/Pomichalkova,K. (2010): THB Labour Exploitation in the Czech Republic. Prague: Publisher

La Strada Czech Republic/Burčíková, P. (2006): Trafficking in Human Beings and Forced Labour or Labour Exploitation in the Czech Republic. Prague: La Strada Czech Republic/

La Strada Czech Republic/Krebs, M. & Pechová, E. (2009): Vietnamese Workers in Czech Factories – Research Report – Excerpt. Prague: La Strada Czech Republic/

La Strada Czech Republic/Kutalkova, P. (2010): The narrow gateway to human rights; identification of trafficked persons in the Czech Republic. Prague: La Strada Czech Republic.

La Strada Czech Republic/Prachakitbamrung, P. (2011): Findings from a Migration Mapping Study: Thai Migrant Workers in the Czech Republic. Prague: La Strada Czech Republic/

Denmark
COWI Department for Gender Equality (2010): Evaluation of the Danish Action Plan for combating of trafficking in human beings, 2007-2010 (Summary in English). Kongens Lyngby: Publisher

Danish Center Against Human Trafficking/Korsby, T.M. (2010): Au Pair and Trafficked? - recruitment, residence in Denmark and dreams for the future A qualitative study of the prevalence and risk of human trafficking in the situations and experiences of a group of au pairs in Denmark. Odense: National Board of Social Services

Finland
Finnish National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings (2010): 2010: Trafficking in human beings, phenomena related to it, and implementation of the rights of human

Finland, Poland & Estonia
European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI)(2011): Trafficking for Forced Labour and Labour Exploitation in Finland, Poland and Estonia. Helsinki: HEUNI

France
ILO (2005a): Le Trafic et L’exploitation des immigrants chinois en France. Geneva: ILO

National Consultative Commission on Human Rights (2009): Opinion on combating the trafficking and exploitation of human beings in France (Recommendations adopted by the Plenary Assembly on 18 December 2009).

Germany
BBGM (2010): Human Trafficking for Labour Exploitation. An explorative study into its forms, origins and extent in selected industrial sectors in Berlin and Brandenburg (summary in English) Berlin: IOM

German Institute for Human Rights & EVZ/Otto, P.F. & Rabe, H. (2009): Human Trafficking
in Germany Strengthening Victim’s Human Rights. Berlin: German Institute for Human Rights

ILO/Cyrus, N. (2005): Trafficking for labour and sexual exploitation in Germany. Geneva: ILO

Greece
Re-Integration Centre for Migrant Workers/CCME (2011): Trafficking for Labour in Greece. Athens: Re-Integration Center for Migrant Workers

Ireland
AkiDwA (2010) ‘Am Only Saying It Now’: Experiences of Women Seeking Asylum in Ireland. Part of GAATW Feminist Participatory Action Research Series 2010. Dublin: AkiDwA.

Migrant Rights Centre Ireland (2006): Accessing redress for workplace exploitation: the experience of migrant workers. Dublin.

Migrant Rights Centre Ireland/Dublin City University (2006): No way forward, no way back: Identifying the problem of trafficking for forced labour in Ireland. Dublin: MRCI

Migrant Rights Centre Ireland’s Restaurant Workers Action Group (2008): Exploitation in Ireland’s Restaurant Industry. Dublin: MRCI

Ireland & United Kingdom
ITF (2008): Migrant Workers in the Scottish and Irish Fishing industry: Forced or compulsory labour or just plain modern day slavery.

Migrant Rights Centre Ireland / CCME (2010): Trafficking for Forced Labour in Ireland and the United Kingdom: Issues and Emerging Good Practice. Dublin: MRCI

Italy & Spain
The Federation of Protestant Churches in Italy (FCEI) & Carchedi, F./CCM (2010): Slave labour: Some aspects of the phenomenon in Italy and Spain.

Netherlands
Bonded Labour in the Netherlands (BlinN) (2009): Annual report Amsterdam: BlinN

Bonded Labour in the Netherlands (BlinN) (2009) Uitgebuit en in de bak! Slachtoffers van mensenhandel in vreemdelingendetentie. Amsterdam: BLinN – Humanitas/Oxfam Novib

Jonge van Ellemeet, H. de & Smit, M. (2006): Trafficking for exploitation outside the sex industry. In: Van den Anker, C. & Doomernik, J. (Eds.) Trafficking and women’s rights (219-232). Pallgrave Macmillan.

Korvinus, D., Koster, D. and Jonge van Ellemeet, H. de (2007): Trafficking in Human Beings: The concept of exploitation in the Dutch trafficking provision.

National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings (2007): Fifth Report from the National Rapporteur. The Hague: BNRM

National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings (2009): Human Trafficking - Seventh Report from the National Reporter. The Hague: BNRM

National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings (2010): Human Trafficking – ten years of independent monitoring. The Hague: BNRM.

Poland
• See also: Finland, Poland & Estonia

Madler, V./CCME (2010): Trafficking in Human Beings Labour Exploitation in Poland

Portugal
ILO/Pereira, S. & Vasconcelos, J. (2008): Human Trafficking and Forced Labour: Case studies and responses from Portugal. Geneva: ILO

Romania
CCME (2010): Research on Trafficking in Human Beings Labour Exploitation in Romania.

ILO/Ghinararu C. & Van der Linden, M. (2004): Trafficking of migrant workers from Romania: Issues of labour & sexual exploitation. Geneva: ILO

Russian Federation
ILO/Tyuryukanova, E. (2005): Forced Labour in the Russian Federation Today: Irregular Migration and Trafficking in Human Beings. Geneva: ILO

International Federation of Human Rights (FIDH) & Civic Assistance Committee (CAC) (2008): Alternative Joint-report to the Attention of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD): Migrant Workers in the Russian Federation: The Use of Forced Labour. Geneva: FIDH

OSCE-ODIHR (2008): Identification, Assistance and Protection of Victims of Trafficking in the Russian Federation (focusing on the Moscow region).

Spain
• See also: Italy & Spain

ACCEM (2006): La Trata de Personas con Fines de Explotación Laboral. Un estudio de aproximación a la realidad en España. Madrid: ACCEM

Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) Equality Department (2010): For Decent Work, Against labour exploitation. Madrid: UGT

Ukraine
• See: Belarus & Ukraine

United Kingdom
• See also: Ireland & United Kingdom

Anti Slavery International/Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2010): Wrong kind of victim? One year on: an analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons. London: Anti-Slavery International for the Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group. City: Anti-Slavery International for the Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group
Anti Slavery International/Skrivankova,K. (2006): Trafficking for Forced Labour UK Country Report. London: Anti Slavery International

Burnett, J. & Whyte, D. (2010): The Wages of Fear: risk, safety and undocumented work. University of Liverpool

COMPAS in collaboration with the Trade Union Congress/Anderson, B. & Rogaly, B. (2009): Forced Labour and Migration to the UK.

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) et al (2007): Contemporary slavery in the UK: overview and key issues. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Kalayaan/Lalani, M. (2011): Policies that work to protect migrant domestic workers. London: Kalayaan

Parliament United Kingdom (2011). Minister for Immigration’s answer to a written parliamentary question on 8 June 2011. Commons Hansard. http://services.parliament.uk/hansard/Commons/bydate/20110608/writtenanswers/part019.html Web site accessed on 10 August 2011.

Skrivankova, K. (2010): Between decent work and forced labor: examining the continuum of exploitation. JRF Program Paper: Forced Labour. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

UK Home Office/Dowling, S., Moreton, K. & Wright, L. (2007): see above at ‘Trafficking for Exploitation Outside the Sex Sector in Europe"

Trafficking for Exploitation Outside the Sex Sector in Europe

Anti-Slavery International et al (2006): Trafficking for Forced Labour in Europe: Report on a Study in the UK, Ireland, the Czech Republic and Portugal. London: Anti-Slavery International

Beirnaert, J. (2011): A Trade Union Perspective on Combating Trafficking and Forced Labour in Europe, in: Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for Labour Exploitation. Chapter 10, Pp.471-494. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publisher.

Churches’ Commission for Migrants in Europe (CCME)/ Moritz, T. & Tsourdi, L. (eds) (2009): Trafficking for forced labour in Europe: Emerging challenges – emerging responses. A collection of emerging best practice examples. Brussels: Churches’ Commission for Migrants in Europe (CCME)

Dijk, F.H. van & Ungureanu R.N. (2010): Labour Exploitation in Europe: A practical guide with observations and recommendations on European inspection, investigation, and prosecution of labour exploitation.

ILO (2002): Forced Labour, Child Labour and Human Trafficking in Europe: An ILO Perspective. Geneva: ILO

ILO (2003): Forced labour, migration and trafficking in Europe. Geneva: ILO

ILO/Andrees, B. (2008): Forced labour and trafficking in Europe: how people are trapped in, live through and come out. Working Paper 57, February 2008. Geneva: ILO

ILO (2009a): The Cost of Coercion: Forced Labour: Facts and Figures; Regional Perspectives: Europe and Central Asia. Geneva: ILO

ILO (2010): Labour inspection in Europe: undeclared work, migration, trafficking. Geneva: ILO

ITUC CSI IGB/Anti Slavery International (2011): Never work alone. Trade Unions and NGOs joining forces to combat Forced Labour and Trafficking in Europe. Brussels: ITUC.

OSCE (2005 & 2006): Report of the 3rd and 5th Alliance against Trafficking in Persons Conferences on Human Trafficking for Labour Exploitation/Forced and Bonded Labour. Human Trafficking for Labour Exploitation/Forced and Bonded Labour: Identification – Prevention – Prosecution; Human Trafficking for Labour Exploitation/Forced and Bonded Labour: Prosecution of Offenders, Justice for Victims. Vienna: OSCE

OSCE (2006)/ Katy Thompson,: A Summary of Challenges Facing Legal Responses to Human Trafficking for Labour Exploitation in the OSCE Region (MC.DEC/8/07). Vienna: OSCE

OSCE (2007): Decision No. 8/07. Combating Trafficking in human beings for Labour Exploitation. MC.DEC/8/07. Madrid: Ministerial Council.

OSCE-ODIHR (2007a): The NRM Approach to Trafficking and its application to trafficking for labour exploitation. Report on Civil Society Meeting, Warsaw, 24 April 2007. ODIHR Anti-Trafficking Programme. Warsaw: OSCE-ODIHR

OSCE-ODIHR (2007b): ODIHR Discussion Paper on standards and new developments in labour trafficking. Warsaw. OSCE-ODIHR

OSCE (2009): A summary of challenges addressing human trafficking for labour exploitation in the agricultural sector in the OSCE region. Vienna: OSCE

OSCE (2011): Unprotected Work, Invisible Exploitation: Trafficking for the Purpose of Domestic Servitude. Vienna: OSCE

UK Home Office/Dowling, S., Moreton, K., Wright, L. (2007): Trafficking for the purposes of labour exploitation: a literature review. Home Office Online Report 10/07. Online: Research Development and Statistics Directorate, UK Home Office.

USAID (2009): Trafficking of adult men in the Europe and Eurasia regions. Final report. USAID

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Strategic Thematic Direction

During 2011-13, through our Power in Migration and Work thematic programme, we engaged more directly with the migrant rights and labour rights movements. During 2014-2016 our work will build on the work of previous years; we will continue to push for a human rights based approach in anti-trafficking policies and practices.  We will also deepen our engagement with the issue of migration and labour.

The three thematic strategic issues outlined below are continuations of our work during 2011-13.

ACCOUNTABILITY Increasing the accountability of all anti-trafficking stakeholders involved in the design or implementation of anti-trafficking responses, towards the persons whose human rights they purport to protect.

ACCESS TO JUSTICE Broadening spaces for trafficked persons and migrant workers to practice their human rights by improving access to justice and combating all forms of discrimination that impact women’s ability to exercise their human rights as they relate to trafficking.

POWER IN MIGRATION AND WORK Centring an analysis of women’s power in their labour and migration to better assess migration and labour policies’ impact on women, and to work towards labour and migration processes that reflect migrants’ needs, aspirations and capabilities.